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The orthodox pilgrim on the Holy Land

Home About the project Pilgrimage center in Jerusalem Pilgrimage itineraries Photographs News History of the Holy Land Tradition Tour Guide in Israel, Jerusalem and the Holy Land Pavel Platonov Individual one-day excursions from Jerusalem and other cities of Israel 2018-2019 (34 routes) Articles by Pavel Platonov on the Holy Land Life and needs of Russian Orthodox pilgrims in the Holy Land in the XIX-XXI centuries. Pavel Platonov
The Church of St. Peter the Apostle and the Righteous Tabitha in the Russian site in Jaffa. Pavel Platonov
The Olive Savior-Ascension Convent in Jerusalem. Pavel Platonov
Gornensky Monastery in Jerusalem: the history of the Abode and its patronal feasts. Pavel Platonov
History of the building of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem with the house church of St. the martyr Alexandra. Pavel Platonov
Holy Mount Tabor is the site of the glorious Transfiguration of the Lord. Pavel Platonov
The Church of St. Mary Magdalene in the Garden of Gethsemane in Jerusalem. Pavel Platonov

Chapter 1. Acquisition of the site and construction of the church of St. Mary Magdalene

Today, when pilgrims from all over the world visit the shrines of Gethsemane, they can not miss the Russian Orthodox church immediately attracting attention by unforgettable architecture in the name of St. Mary Magdalene at the western foot of the Mount of Olives. The golden domes of the domes of the Russian church surprisingly harmoniously blended into the surrounding landscape of Gethsemane with its complex of groves of cypresses and various churches.
 
Russian Orthodox church of St. Mary Magdalene in Gethsemane. (Top right)
© Jerusalem IOPS Department
 
Russian Orthodox church of St. Mary Magdalene in Gethsemane. General form
© Jerusalem IOPS Department
 
The history of the origin of this masterpiece of Russian architectural architecture in the Holy Land dates back to May 1881, at the time of the arrival, on a pilgrimage visit, of the Grand Dukes Sergiy [1] and Pavel Aleksandrovich and Konstantin Constantinovich.
 
Grand Dukes Sergiy and Pavel Alexandrovich.
© Jerusalem IOPS Department
 
The famous ascetic piety and the collector of Russian Palestine, the head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, Archimandrite Antonin (Kapustin) [2] has long dreamed of acquiring a plot of land for Russia in the upper part of the Garden of Gethsemane on the western slope of the Mount of Olives, and he introduced himself in 1881 precisely on a visit Palestine by the Grand Dukes.
 
Archimandrite Antonin (Kapustin) - Chief
Russian Spiritual Mission in Jerusalem (1865-1894)
© Photo archive of the Jerusalem branch of the IOPS. Photo of the late XIX century
 
Archimandrite Antonin drew the attention of Grand Duke Sergius Alexandrovich to the site and put forward the idea of ​​building a worthy temple on this place in the future, dedicated to the memory of the mother of Grand Duke Sergius Alexandrovich - the Empress Maria Alexandrovna (1824-1880) [3] of whom the maid of honor of the Supreme Court of A.F. Tyutcheva [4] wrote: "First of all, this soul was extremely sincere and deeply religious, but this soul, like its body shell, seemed to come out of the framework of the medieval picture. Religion has a different effect on the soul of man: for some, it is struggle, activity, mercy, responsiveness, for others - silence, contemplation, concentration, self-torture. First - a place in the field of life, the second - in the monastery. The soul of the Grand Duchess was one of those belonging to the monastery "[5].
 
Portrait of the Empress Maria Alexandrovna, 1857.
Artist F.K. Winterhalter
 
The remarkable idea of Archimandrite Antonin (Kapustin) remains in the memory of Grand Duke Sergiy Aleksandrovich and is practically implemented after the establishment and appointment of the Chairman of the Orthodox Palestine Society (OPS) on May 21, 1882 in St. Petersburg. To this end, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Empire and in particular the Consulate General of Russia in Jerusalem was instructed to purchase the site chosen for the construction of the church by Archimandrite Antonin.
 
View of the Russian site in Gethsemane in 1882. Photo of Timon's father.
© Jerusalem IOPS Department
 
After the acquisition of the site, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Empire, N.K. Girs [6] thanks the Russian ambassador to Constantinople, A.I. Nelidov, for the execution of the instruction: "Upon receiving a telegraph notification, both from Your Excellency and the Consul General in Jerusalem, that the place in Gethsemane was bought in the name of the Consulate and that documents of sale are in his hands, I consider it my duty to thank you, Gracious Sovereign, for the zealous assistance to the satisfactory completion of this matter, so interested in the Imperial Government "[7].
 
Grand Duke and Chairman of the IOPS from 1882 to 1905 Sergiy Alexandrovich
© Jerusalem IOPS Department
 
It takes two years and the construction of the church on this site, with the permission of the Honorary Member and the founder of the Orthodox Palestine Society (OPS), the Emperor Alexander III, is entrusted to the Orthodox Palestine Society, and the direct supervision and supervision of the work in Jerusalem is entrusted to the head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem , to the honorable member of the Orthodox Palestine Society Archimandrite Antonin (Kapustin). For this purpose, the famous ascetic and one of the founders of the future Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society (IOPS) Vasily Khitrovo [8] was sent to Jerusalem on a business trip. In his rescript dated October 2, 1884, the Grand Duke Sergiy Alexandrovich, President of the Great Patriotic War, asks Archimandrite Antonin about assistance: "Venerable Father Antonin, V.N. Hitrovo sent, with the permission of the Emperor, to Jerusalem to enter into negotiations with the city architect K. Shick about the construction of the church on the place acquired on the Mount of Olives by the means of His Majesty and us, his brothers, near the Garden of Gethsemane. I am quite sure that you are a personal favor to Me, do not deny your enlightened assistance in this matter and take upon yourself the main guidance and supervision in the construction of this church "[9].
 
 
Founder and Honorary Member
Of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society
Emperor Alexander III
 
The same letter about the authority of Vasiliy Khitrovo and with a request for assistance Grand Duke Sergiy Alexandrovich informs the Russian ambassador in Constantinople A.I. Nelidov [10]. The Emperor, wishing to immortalize the memory of the Empress Maria Alexandrovna, asks the Chairman of the PPO, Grand Duke Sergiy Alexandrovich, to complete the Gethsemane building, which telegraphes to the Council of the Society: "Can Khitrovo go now?" [11]. V.N. Khitrovo had to approve the estimate of the building according to the plan of the famous Russian architect David Grimm [12] on his business trip, to agree on the construction with the local Jerusalem architect K. Shick [13] under the supervision of Archimandrite Antonin (Kapustin). Upon his arrival in Jerusalem, in January 1885, V.N. Khitrovo meets with the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Nicodemus, who promises him "to sanctify this church himself ... [14]" (the church of St. Mary Magdalene in Gethsemane., P.Platonov's note).
 
Vasily Nikolaevich Khitrovo - founder and leader
The Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society (IOPS)
Assistant to the Chairman of the PPO (1882-1884)
Member of the Council (1884-1889)
Secretary of the IOPS (1889-1903)
Photo album "Russian institutions in Jerusalem in the period until 1907"
© Photo archive of the Jerusalem branch of the IOPS
 
Patriarch Nicodemus fulfilled his promise and arrived on January 21, 1885 in Gethsemane, where, in collaboration with the head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, Archimandrite Antoninus, together with numerous Russian and Greek clergy, led the solemn ceremony of laying the foundation of the church of St. Mary Magdalene in Gethsemane. At the celebrations of the consecration of the future church, a member of the Council of the Orthodox Palestine Society, Vasily Khitrovo, prayed.
 
Laying the churche of St. Mary Magdalene Patriarch of Jerusalem Nicodemus January 21, 1885
On the right of Patriarch Nicodemus,
the assistant to the Chairman of the Orthodox Palestine Society, Vasily Khitrovo
The head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem will serve to the left of the partriarch
Archimandrite Antonin (Kapustin)
© Jerusalem Department of the IOPS
 
At the consecration of the future temple, the inscription was erected: "This holy church in the name of the Holy Equal-to-the-Apostles Mary Magdalene was founded by the will of the pious Emperor of the Autocrat of the All-Russian Alexander Alexandrovich and the August Brothers of his Grand Dukes Vladimir, Alexei, Sergius and Pavel Alexandrovich in memory of the deceased parent of their God the most pious Empress Maria Alexandrovna "[15].
 
Картинка 3 из 335
Russian architect David Ivanovich Grimm is the author of an architectural project
church of St. Mary Magdalene in Gethsemane in Jerusalem
 
Initially, the work on the construction of the future temple was entrusted to the Jerusalem architect K. Shik, who, having familiarized himself with the plan of D. Grimm in the spring of 1885, was surprised "with the abundance and diversity and peculiar character of the external ornamentation of the future church ... and hastened to add that they - (works - . Platonov) will require quite some time and a lot of money "[16]. Archimandrite Antonin, in his letter of June 3, 1885, informs a member of the Council of the (OPS) V.N. Khitrovo: "With respect to my proposal to participate in them (a work - a comment of P. Platonov), a respectable man (K. Shick - P.Platonov's comment) gladly agreed, noting only that he did not want to take on the burden of harvesting and delivery to the place of all kinds of material, selection, hiring, premises, etc. workers, pay with them, the protection of the erected building, etc. under. in a word, wants to be only the governor and the head of the work, leaving the material side of them for my care and discretion "[17]. In the same letter, Father Antonin proposes a constructive plan for the construction of the very future church of St. Mary Magdalene, proposing to separate in the construction plan the bell tower from the temple itself and some internal rebuilding in the very outline of the building. K. Schick agreed with the opinion of Father Antonin and added the changes he introduced to the architectural plan [18]. During the work and excavation of the foundation pit under the foundation of the future church in the spring of 1885, as reported in the letter of Archimandrite Antonin to the Secretary of the OPS MP. Stepanov, dated July 3, 1885, found "two ancient tombs, carved according to Jewish custom in a rock in the form of a square room with grave niches (loculi) on either side, then Mr. Architect Shick, suggesting that it is possible that such graves exist all the way the interior of the church of God, found it necessary to dig up the whole area to its natural rock "[19].
 
During the summer of 1885, K. Schick compiled an estimate of the project, and from the draft note of the Secretary of the OPS, M.P. Stepanov dated 1885, we learn that the estimate was made in the amount of "433 000 francs, which at a rate of 250, is 177 200 rubles in silver" [20]. Until February 1885 there was an agreement between the announced estimates with the Emperor and the leadership of the Orthodox Palestine Society (OPS). And in November 1885, Archimandrite Antonin informs the Secretary of the OPS, Mikhail Petrovich Stepanov, the joyful news of the discovery in the territory of the Gethsemane site - a large treasure of silver coins from the Crusader period and other artifacts during the construction works: "At our Gethsemane site, terraced in its geological formation, The lower parts have many natural caves and artificial catacombs, which served in the former times as graves. Clearing one of those under the prepared lime, we found in the mass of alluvial land a treasure, namely a lot of silver coins of the time of the Crusaders dispersed there and in size in our 15 kopecks with a cross on one side and a city (apparently) tower on the other , surrounded by inscriptions, on the one hand we read BAL - DUIN US REX (balduinus rex), and with another DEIERUSALEM (De Ierusalem) [21]. All coins were delivered to us by workers of 1116 pieces. 111 of them are half the size. From the poor quality of silver, they generally have a greenish appearance. But all are well preserved, as if they were not even used at all ... Found, in addition, at different times excavations of space, several nightlights, an archaic figure of clay, jugs, glass fragments, etc. "[22].
 
The final answer on the project estimate comes February 7, 1886 in a letter to the Secretary of the OPS M.P. Stepanov to Archimandrite Antonin, where he reports that "100,000 rs are allocated for the construction of the church (not taking into consideration the interior decoration), and this sum should by no means be omitted" [23]. After that, consultations began with K.Shik, who refused such conditions, and Archimandrite Antonin finds the energetic Jerusalem architect Georgy Frangia, telegrapping to St. Petersburg a member of the Council of OPS V.N. Khitrovo: "Franguias also finds few 100 thousand, but it is taken to build without sex, crosses, wood, metal. We must agree and rush things. Antonin "[24]. As a result of consultations and consultations between the leadership of the Orthodox Palestine Society and Archimandrite Antonin, which lasted throughout the spring of 1886, the administration of the construction of the Gethsemane project was entrusted to the Jerusalem architect Georgy Frangia, to assist Archimandrite Antoninus with his faithful assistant Yakub Halebi. And already in May 1886, Father Antonin joyfully informs the Secretary of the OPS MP. Stepanov: "In Gethsemane we have a friendly and hasty work. All the working hands are typed by 70 people. During this summer, the energetic architect promises to bring the matter up to half, and next summer to finish the whole construction ... I, for my part, will put in charge to deliver you monthly reports in spending the amounts entrusted to me, as well as photographic shots erected parts of the building "[25].
 
The Jerusalem architect Georgiy Frangya is the builder of the church of St. Mary Magdalene in Gethsemane
© Jerusalem IOPS Department
 
Unique photographs that the monk of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission carried out in Jerusalem, Father Timon, survived at the Russian National Library in St. Petersburg [26], as well as they can be found in antique shops, in pre-revolutionary editions of photo albums of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, or on the Internet-publications [27]. According to these preserved photographs, it is possible to follow the chronologically dynamic history of the construction of the Russian church of St. Mary Magdalene in Gethsemane.
 
Construction of the church of St. Mary Magdalene in Gethsemane. 1885-1888 years. Photo of Father Timon
Left Georgy Frangya, right Conrad Schick - Jerusalem architects. © Jerusalem IOPS Department
 
July 7, 1886, Archimandrite Antonin in a letter to M.P. Stepanov joyfully states the indisputable fact: "Works on the construction of the church of Gethsemane are going on and on and on. The stereoscopic photograms attached here may give you some idea of ​​them "[28]. Accustomed in all his affairs to bring quality to perfection, the indefatigable archimandrite Antonin complains in a letter to M.P. Stepanov, about the order instead of the allegedly "arshinny bell", something more grandiose and appropriate for such a majestic churche: "I, on behalf of all future generations of worship, come to the august feet of His Highness the Emperor, V.K. Sergiy Alexandrovich with the most urgent request to order a large bell in sazhen in diameter, it does not matter what he would not have gained weight "[29].
 
The Jerusalem architect Conrad Schick observes the progress of the work during the construction of the church of St. The Magdalene in Gethsemane
1885-1888 years. Photo of Father Timon © Jerusalem Department of the IOPS
 
The request of Archimandrite Antonin received further progress and assistance in the improvement of the bells for the Gethsemane belfry came from Russia from Archpriest Aristarkh of Israel, who was honored for this cause with special honors and "that the Emperor was pleased with the All-Gracious pectoral Cross decorated with precious stones of the Rostov-Christmas female Monastery of. Archpriest Aristarkh Israeilev, as a reward for his works on the harmonious ringing of 6 bells assigned for the under construction, at the expense of the Sovereign Emperor and His August Brothers, in Gethsemane, near the Holy City of Jerusalem, the Church in the name of St. Mary Magdalene and in memory of the deceased Mary Magdalene Empress "[30].
 
Bells of the church of St. Mary Magdalene in Gethsemane, delivered to Jerusalem on December 9, 1886
Photo January 31, 2008. © Jerusalem IOPS Department
 
On December 9, bells, packed in 4 barrels and 1 box, were received in Odessa on behalf of the Council of the Society by the Authorized OPS in Odessa, M.I. Osipov and sent the same day on the ship "Lazarev" in Jaffa in the name of the Russian Consul D.N. Bukharov [31].
 
Construction of the church of St. Mary Magdalene. 1885-1888 years.
Photo of Timon's father. © Jerusalem IOPS Department
 
It is a well-known fact that Archimandrite Antoninus, as a lover of strict Byzantine architecture, initially was skeptical enough about the architectural design of D.I. Grimm. On this occasion, he ironically speaks in his letter of September 22, 1886 to the Secretary of the PPO, M.P. Stepanov, reporting in general on the progress of the construction of the church: "The case is very successful. Different window fintiflushki and vykomury sad Russian style, we do the exact (of course, of solid stone) "[32]. Further in another letter to the same M.P. Stepanov, but from June 3, 1887, Father Antonin complained about the unsettledness in the interior design of the churche: "And the inside? Alas! Dark, cramped, stretched, tortured, just terrible "[33]!
 
Construction of the church of St. Mary Magdalene. 1885-1888 years.
Photo of Timon's father. © Jerusalem IOPS Department
 
In the same document, Father Antonin mentions the participation in the construction of the Gethsemane Church by two Italian architects Antonio Langodorno and John Baptista Biselli, who have already distinguished themselves in the most commendable manner in the construction of the bell tower and the Church of the Ascension Monastery on the top of Mount Eleon "both of them took part in the Gethsemane construction" and intercedes for them "if it were possible to give the first gold medal" For skill "(zeal ... work ...) around the neck, and the second - in the buttonhole, on the" Stanislavsky tape "[34]. Anyway, this unsettledness inspired the indefatigable Palestinian worker to the remarkable creative idea of ​​the interior design of the temple: "To make her look appropriate, you need to paint it with a brush of genius to take it not by washing, then rolling by proverb. It will be necessary to write in three partitions - southern, western and northern - not the place of closed windows, the painting from the life of St. Mary Magdalene, for example, her healing from a terrible illness, her standing at the Cross of Christ and meeting with Christ on the Resurrection. But how to decorate the whole huge surface of the eastern wall above the iconostasis? The most prominent place in the whole temple, and the darkest and naked, from the floor itself to the highest flashlight (according to Grimm - the domes)? It would be to depict, historically and topographically and in every possible way, the scene of the Myrrh-Bearer's offering to the Emperor of the Red Egg, with the words: "Christ is Risen!" [35].


 
The interior of the church of St. Mary Magdalene in Gethsemane. Photo of Father Timon 1888
© Photoarchive of the Orthodox Society "Russia in colors" 
 
 
 
The iconostasis and the image of St. Mary Magdalene in the emperor Tiberius. Modern look
© January 31, 2008 Photo archive of the Jerusalem branch of the IOPS 
 
 
 
 
 
 

The execution of the icons for the altar of the churche was entrusted to the well-known Russian portrait painter, writing, including in the historical genre, Vasily Petrovich Vereshchagin [36], already famous for his famous paintings on biblical and historical themes, as well as writing icons for the main iconostases the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow and the Assumption Cathedral of the Kiev-Pecherskiy Lavra [37]. Written by the artist in Russia, the icons arrived in Odessa on August 22, 1887 and were sent to Jaffa on the steamship "Kornilov" in the name of the consul V.N. Timofeev with a request to send them to Jerusalem [38].
 
Church painting of the repentance of Mary Magdalene. October 14, 2008. © Jerusalem IOPS Department
 
Church painting "Mary Magdalene at the Cross." October 14, 2008. © Jerusalem IOPS Department
 
 
Church painting "Mary Magdalene at the feet of the Resurrected Savior"
October 14, 2008. © Jerusalem IOPS Department


Under the supervision of the artist-restorer P.K. Sokolov in June 1888 in the interior of the Church of Gethsemane made installation of four canvases from the life of St. Mary Magdalene [39].

© Pavel Viktorovich Platonov,
Chairman of the Jerusalem Branch of the IOPS



Publication on July 2, 2011. All rights reserved.
Full or partial reprinting and quoting only upon written permission of the IOPS Jerusalem office in consultation with the editorial staff of our website
 
Table of contents

Part I. Pre-revolutionary period
Chapter 1. Acquisition of the site and construction of the church of St. Mary Magdalene
Chapter 2. Accomplishment and solemn consecration of the church of St. Mary Magdalene
Chapter 3. Construction of a hospice house in the Gethsemane section and repairs of the church of St. Mary Magdalene
Part II. The post-revolutionary period
Chapter 4. The Gethsemane community from 1914 to 1948
Chapter 5. Russian Gethsemane from 1948 to the present day
 
Notes


[1] Grand Duke Sergiy Aleksandrovich (April 29 (May 11) 1857 Tsarskoe Selo - 4 (17) February 1905, Moscow) - the fifth son of Alexander II; Moscow mayor, Governor-General. Chairman of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society. The husband of Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna. Killed from the terrorist bomb Kalyaev in 1905.
 
[2] Archimandrite Antonin (in the world - Andrei Ivanovich Kapustin, August 12, 1817, Baturino village, Shadrinsky district, Perm province - March 24, 1894, Jerusalem) - clergyman of the Russian Orthodox Church, a Byzantine scholar, head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in the Holy Land (1865-1894). For many years of work, Archimandrite Antonin was elected at various times an honorary member of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society, an honorary member of the Imperial Archaeological Society, the Odessa Society of History and Antiquities, the Athenian Archaeological Society, the German Eastern Archaeological Society, and others. In 1865, he was sent to Jerusalem as the head of the head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission after the forced departure of Archimandrite Leonid (Kavelin). And in 1869, at the petition of Patriarch Cyril, Archimandrite Antonin was confirmed as the Chief of Mission. During his tenure, Archimandrite Antonin provided a lot of services to pilgrims who arrived from Russia, and also contributed to the acquisition of Orthodox shrines in the ownership of the Russian Empire. Since the law of the Ottoman Empire permitted the acquisition of land in ownership only to private individuals filed by the Ports, the dragoman of the Mission, Yakub Halebi, acted as a buyer. In addition to performing official duties, Father Antonin was engaged in archeology and astronomy, numismatics, wrote poetry and painted until old age. In 1883, with his participation, excavations were carried out near the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, as a result of which the remnant of the wall of ancient Jerusalem with the threshold of the Judgment Gate was opened. At this place later was built Alexandrovskoe metochion with the church of St. Alexander Nevsky. He made several more archaeological excavations and arranged a museum of Christian antiquities in Jerusalem at the mission. Antonin Kapustin died on March 24, 1894 in Jerusalem at the age of 77. According to the testament, he was buried in the Ascension church in the Russian, he founded a monastery on the top of Mount Eleon
 
[3] Maria Alexandrovna (1824-1880) - Empress, the wife of Emperor Alexander II (since 1841), nee Princess Maximilian-Wilhelmina-Augusta-Sofia-Maria Hesse-Darmstadt, the mother of Emperor Alexander III. Early in her marriage, Maria Alexandrovna dedicated the first two decades of her stay in Russia to the birth and upbringing of children: Alexandra, Nikolay, Alexandra, Vladimir, Alexei, Maria, Sergei and Pavel. In the late 1850's, during the life of her mother-in-law, the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, took over the leadership of women's educational institutions. With her, a progressive reform of boarding schools was carried out: vacations were introduced; parapets were removed that separated girls and visitors at the reception hours; the curriculum was changed: the study of natural science subjects, literature, gymnastics, etc. was introduced. The first women's open educational institutions-gymnasiums, founded with its assistance-were called Mariinsky. On her initiative, women's diocesan schools were established. Maria Alexandrovna founded handicraft schools for boys, handicraft schools for girls, numerous elementary schools, orphanages, and a network of women's boarding schools. Maria Aleksandrovna took an active part in the organization of the Russian Red Cross, and she cared for the blind. After the death of the eldest son, the successor-czarevitch Nikolai Aleksandrovich (1843-1865), who died in Nice, Maria Aleksandrovna fell ill. She continued to deal with the affairs of educational institutions, but almost departed from secular life. She spent several months of the year outside St. Petersburg, abroad or in the south of Russia; in Kiev, for her was finished the palace, which became her residence and was named the Mariinsky. Based on the materials of the Russian Humanitarian Encyclopedic Dictionary. http://slovari.yandex.ru
 
[4] Anna Fedorovna Tyutcheva (21 [2] April 1829, Munich - August 11, 1889) - the daughter of the poet FI Tyutchev, the maid of honor of the High Court, the wife of I.S. Aksakov, a memoirist; shared the views of the Slavophiles. Based on Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
 
[5] Secrets of the royal court. The notes of the maid of honor. Ed. O. Sverdlova, M .: Knowledge, 1997, p.186
 
[6] Girs Nikolai Karlovich (May 9 (21), 1820, near Radzivilov - January 14 (26), 1895, Petersburg) - Russian diplomat, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia in the years 1882 - 1895; Acting Privy Councilor (April 16, 1878), State Secretary (1879), Honorary Member of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1876).
 
[7] Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials. Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Empire of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. M. 2000. T 1. No. 134. The attitude of the Minister of Foreign Affairs N.K. Girs Ambassador in Constantinople AI. Nelidov October 7, 1882 (WUA RI, Embassy in Constantinople, item 517/2, d. 3351, sheet 37-37 about). page 411
 
[8] Vasily Khitrovo (21.05.1882-05.05.1903) - organizer, founder, one of the founders and an honorary member of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society, whose name and experience are undeservedly forgotten, is a great ascetic of his time. His whole life is the history of the existence of the Society itself. It originated in his thought and existed with his works, while Vasily Nikolayevich considered himself a modest worker. Assistant to the Chairman of the PPO (1882-1884), Member of the Board (1884-1889), Secretary of the IOPS (1889-1903). He received his education at the Imperial Alexander Lyceum; was a member of the Council of the Minister of Education. He wrote several works on the Holy Land: "The scientific significance of the excavations carried out by the Orthodox Palestinian society in a Russian place near the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem" (St. Petersburg, 1885); "A week in Palestine, from travel memories" (ib., 1879); "Palestine and Sinai" (issue I, ib., 1876; issue II, ib., 1886); "Orthodoxy in the Holy Land" (St. Petersburg, 1898); "Russian pilgrims of the Holy Land" (ib., 1905).
 
[9] Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials. Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Empire of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. M. 2000. T 1. No. 135. Rescript of the Chairman of the Orthodox Palestine Society of Grand Duke Sergiy Aleksandrovich to the Head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, Archimandrite Antonin. October 2, 1884 (WUA RI, RIOPS, op.873/1, d. 492, sheet 6). page 411
 
[10] Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials. Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Empire of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. M. 2000. T 1. No. 136. Extract from the Rescript of the Chairman of the Orthodox Palestine Society, Grand Duke Sergius Alexandrovich, addressed to the Ambassador in Constantinople A.I. Nelidov. October 22, 1884 (WUA RI, RIOPS, op.873 / 1, 492, sheet 5). page 412
 
[11] A.A. Dmitrievsky. The Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society and its activities over the past quarter century. 1882-1907 Cn-b. O. Abyshko's Publishing House. Стр. 302
 
[12] David Ivanovich Grimm (March 22 (April 3), 1823 - 9 (21) November 1898) is an outstanding Russian architect, one of the creators of the "Russian style", academician of architecture. Researcher of the medieval architecture of the Caucasus. The author of the projects of the churches in Chersonese (Sevastopol), Tiflis, Copenhagen, Geneva, Nice, Jerusalem (the church in the name of St. Mary), various structures in St. Petersburg and its environs, as well as in Livadia, Zhytomyr, Voronezh, Ryazan province. Based on Wikipedia.
 
[13] Conrad Schick (1822 - 1901). German missionary and architect. In 1845, he was sent to Jerusalem as one of four missionaries who were to teach young people crafts. Shik became the leading architect of that period in Jerusalem, and many of his buildings, including his own house, "House Tabor," still adorn the street of the Prophets (Rehov a-Neviim). Schick was one of the first to study the ruins of ancient Jerusalem. He regularly published information about his findings and discoveries in English and German scientific journals engaged in the study of Palestine, such as the Palestine Exploration Fund and the Deutscher Palästina-Verein (German Organization for the Study of Palestine). Collaborated with Archimandrite Antonin (Kapustin) and the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society. On materials http://www.holidayinisrael.com/ViewPage.asp?lid=101&pid=374

 
[15] Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials. Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Empire of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. M. 2000. T 1. No. 137. Mortgage inscription at the foundation of the church of St. Mary Magdalene. January 21, 1885 (WUA RI, RIOPS, op. 873/1, d. 492, sheet 10). page 412  
[16] Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials. Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Empire of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. M. 2000. T 1. No. 138. Letter from Archimandrite Antonin, Head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, to the Secretary of the OPS, V.N. Khitrovo. June 3, 1885 (WUA RI, RIOPS, op.873/1, d. 492, sheet 15-16 vol.). page 414
 
[17] Ibid. page 414
 
[18] Ibid.
 
[19] Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials. Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Empire of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. M. 2000. T 1. No. 139. Letter from Archimandrite Antonin, Chief of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, to the Secretary of the OPS, M.P. To Stepanov. July 3, 1885 (WUA RI, RIOPS, op. 873/1, d. 492, sheet 30.). page 415
 
[20] Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials. Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Empire of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. M. 2000. T 1. No. 141. Note by the Secretary of the PPO M.P. Stepanov about the estimate for the construction of the church of Gethsemane. Draft of 1885 (WUA RI, RIOPS, op.873/1, d. 492, l. 104-105 vol.). page 416
 
[21] Most likely, it is a coin - the denarius of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, minted there during the reign of King Baldwin III (1143-1162). The legend on this denarius reads: Obv: + BALDVINVS RE Rev: + DE IERVSALEM with the stylized image of the tower of David in Jerusalem. Weight denarii 1,05 gr. Based on materials of http://manro.bestcoinshop.ru/index.php?productID=573
 
[22] Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials. Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Empire of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. M. 2000. T 1. No. 142. Letter from Archimandrite Antonin, Head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, to the Secretary of the PPO, M.P. To Stepanov. November 16, 1885 (WUA RI, RIOPS, op.83 / 1, d. 492, sheet 49-50). page 417
 
[23] Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials. Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Empire of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. M. 2000. T 1. No. 143. Letter from the Secretary of the PPO M.P. Stepanov to the head of the Russian Spiritual Mission in Jerusalem, Archimandrite Antonin. February 7, 1886 (WUA RI, RIOPS, op.83/1, d. 492, sheet 53-54). page 419
 
[24] Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials. Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Empire of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. M. 2000. T 1. (WUA RI, RIOPS, op.873/1, d. 492, sheet 57). page 407
 
[25] Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials. Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Empire of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. M. 2000. T 1. No. 144. Extract from the letter of Archimandrite Antonin, head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, to the secretary of the PPO, M.P. To Stepanov. May 7, 1886 (WUA RI, RIOPS, op.83 / 1, d. 492, sheet 75-75%). page 419
 
[26] The construction of the church of St. Mary Magdalene on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem. Moscow. Publishing house "Indrik" 2006 p. 8.
 
[27] Photo album dedicated to the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem. The end of the 1880s and the beginning of the 1890s. F.M.Tymon. Internet publication of the Orthodox Scientific-Educational Society "Russia in Paints" in Jerusalem. http://palomnic.org/gallery/v/19-vek/timon/  
[28] Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials. Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Empire of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. M. 2000. T 1. No. 148. Extract from the letter of Archimandrite Antonin, head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, to the secretary of the PPO, M.P. To Stepanov. July 7, 1886 (WUA RI, RIOPS, op.83/1, d. 492, sheet 78.). page 421
 
[29] Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials. Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Empire of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. M. 2000. T 1. No. 149. Letter from Archimandrite Antonin, Head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, to the Secretary of the PPO, M.P. To Stepanov. July 12, 1886 (WUA RI, RIOPS, op. 873/1, d. 492, sheet 80-81.). page 423
 
[30] Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials. Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Empire of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. M. 2000. T 1. No. 155. Letter from the Secretary of the OPS M.P. Stepanov Archbishop of Yaroslavl and Rostov Jonathan. November 11, 1886 (WUA RI, RIOPS, op. 873/1, d. 492, sheet 113.). page 427
 
[31] Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials. Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Empire of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. M. 2000. T 1. No. 156. Report of the authorized OPS in Odessa M.I. Osipov to the Council of the Society. December 9, 1886 (WUA RI, RIOPS, op. 873/1, d. 492, sheet 120.). page 427
 
[32] Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials. Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Empire of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. M. 2000. T 1. No. 153. Letter from Archimandrite Antonin, Head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, to the Secretary of the OPS, M.P. To Stepanov. September 22, 1886 (WUA RI, RIOPS, op.83/1, d. 492, p. 99-100.). page 426
 
[33] Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials. Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Empire of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. M. 2000. T 1. No. 153. Letter from Archimandrite Antonin, Head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, to the Secretary of the OPS, M.P. To Stepanov. June 3, 1887 (WUA RI, RIOPS, op.83/1, d. 493, sheet 61-62.). page 432
 
[34] Ibid.
 
[35] Ibid.
 
[36] Vasily Petrovich Vereshchagin (1835-1909). Vasily Petrovich Vereshchagin was born in Perm in a family with good artistic traditions. Therefore, his inclination, like his elder brother Petr Petrovich, was determined quite early. Having received an excellent education (studied at the Academy of Fine Arts from 1857 to 1861) and polished his skills on a retirement trip to Paris and Rome (1863-1869), V.P. After returning to Russia, Vereshchagin becomes a teacher of the historical class of the Academy of Arts. At the same time, he also works a lot on his own paintings, which differ, like most of the graduates of the Academy, with high performing skills, verified drawing of the picture and excellent drawing. Such are the paintings of the artist on biblical subjects (for example, "Night on Calvary," 1860), such are the paintings written on the motives of the Russian bylina ("Ilya Muromets at the feast of Prince Vladimir", 1872) and the history of the Russian land ("The Siege of the Trinity-Sergeeva laurels in 1608, "in 1891); "Vision of Dmitry Donskoy on Kulikovo Field", 1896). Like most classical artists, V.P. Vereshchagin works a lot to decorate the churches and cathedrals under construction (sketches of mosaics for St. Isaac's Cathedral in St. Petersburg, icons for the main iconostasis of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow and the Assumption Cathedral of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, icons for the iconostasis of the Church of St. Mary Magdalene in Gethsemane in Jerusalem). On materials of the site "Russian painting". Internet addresshttp: //www.artsait.ru/art/v/vereshaginVP/main.htm
 
[37] Ibid.
 
[38] Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials. Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Empire of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. M. 2000. T 1. No. 164. From the report of the OPS authorized representative in Odessa, M.I. Osipov to the Council of the Society. August 22, 1887 (WUA RI, RIOPS, op.83/1, d. 493, sheet 70.) p. 436
 
[39] Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials. Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Empire of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. M. 2000. T 1. No. 168. Letter from the artist-restorer P.K. Sokolov Secretary of the OPS MP. To Stepanov. June 8, 1888 (WUA RI, RIOPS, op.873/1, d. 493, l. 100-100 vol.) P. 440


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