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The orthodox pilgrim on the Holy Land

Home About the project Pilgrimage center in Jerusalem Pilgrimage itineraries Photographs News History of the Holy Land Tradition Tour Guide in Israel, Jerusalem and the Holy Land Pavel Platonov Individual one-day excursions from Jerusalem and other cities of Israel 2018-2019 (34 routes) Articles by Pavel Platonov on the Holy Land Life and needs of Russian Orthodox pilgrims in the Holy Land in the XIX-XXI centuries. Pavel Platonov
The Church of St. Peter the Apostle and the Righteous Tabitha in the Russian site in Jaffa. Pavel Platonov
The Olive Savior-Ascension Convent in Jerusalem. Pavel Platonov
Gornensky Monastery in Jerusalem: the history of the Abode and its patronal feasts. Pavel Platonov
History of the building of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem with the house church of St. the martyr Alexandra. Pavel Platonov
Holy Mount Tabor is the site of the glorious Transfiguration of the Lord. Pavel Platonov
The Church of St. Mary Magdalene in the Garden of Gethsemane in Jerusalem. Pavel Platonov
Home / Articles by Pavel Platonov on the Holy Land / Gornensky Monastery in Jerusalem: the history of the Abode and its patronal feasts. Pavel Platonov

Gornensky Monastery in Jerusalem:
the history of the monastery and its patronal feasts

Gornensky nunnery is located in one of the most picturesque corners in the south of modern Jerusalem - Ein Karem (in the arab from Arabic source in the vineyard). Acquisition of this site Russia is fully obliged to the Palestinian worker, a solo artist - Archimandrite Antonin (Kapustin). This was one of the favorite places of Archimandrite Antonin.
 
Архимандрит Антонин Капустин
Archimandrite Antonin (Kapustin)
Around the year 1870


Tradition linked this place with a visit to the Mother of God of her cousin Elizabeth. The Most Pure One came to Gorniy (the hill country of Judea) from Nazareth of Galilee after the Archangelic gospel. Here lived her relatives - St. rights. Zechariah and Elizabeth. It is to the righteous Elizabeth that the Most Pure One arrives to open the heavenly secret to her closest relative. The Mother of God lived here for three months. The Gospel of Luke describes a touching meeting of the Most Pure with holy rights. Elisabeth:
 
"At that time Mary got ready and hurried to a town in the hill country of Judea, where she entered Zechariah’s home and greeted Elizabeth. When Elizabeth heard Mary’s greeting, the baby leaped in her womb, and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit. In a loud voice she exclaimed: “Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the child you will bear! But why am I so favored, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? As soon as the sound of your greeting reached my ears, the baby in my womb leaped for joy. Blessed is she who has believed that the Lord would fulfill his promises to her!” And Mary said: “My soul glorifies the Lord and my spirit rejoices in God my Savior, for he has been mindful of the humble state of his servant. From now on all generations will call me blessed, for the Mighty One has done great things for me— holy is his name. His mercy extends to those who fear him, from generation to generation. He has performed mighty deeds with his arm; he has scattered those who are proud in their inmost thoughts. He has brought down rulers from their thrones but has lifted up the humble. He has filled the hungry with good things but has sent the rich away empty. He has helped his servant Israel, remembering to be merciful to Abraham and his descendants forever, just as he promised our ancestors.” Mary stayed with Elizabeth for about three months and then returned home". [1]
 
Икона Встреча Пресвятой Богородицы и Праведной Елисаветы
Icon Meeting of the Blessed Virgin and Righteous Elizabeth
Ceramics. The facade of the church in the name of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God
in the Gorniy Monastery in Jerusalem
Photos January 25, 2014.
© Photo archive of the Jerusalem branch of the IOPS
 
In the autumn of 1869, when visiting the neighborhood of Jerusalem together with Petr Petrovich Melnikov, a member of the State Council, the former Minister of Railways, Archimandrite Antonin shows him this Arab village and carries with it his idea of acquiring a site for Russia here. The former French dragoman Hana Carlo Gelliayd was ready to sell his site on the mountainside. However, Father Antonin did not have any money..
 
Панорама на селение Эйн-Карем с обзорной площадки Горненского монастыря
View of the village of Ein Karem from the observation platform of the Gornensky Monastery
(the hill country of Judea)
Photo March 6, 2014
© Photo archive of the Jerusalem branch of the IOPS
 
P. P. Melnikov, sunbathing this idea, organized a committee to raise the necessary funds. The owner of metallurgical plants in St. Petersburg, Putilov, Polyakov, the owners of the famous delicacies, the Eliseev brothers, and KF von Meck, the husband of Nadezhda Filaretovna, friend and patron of P.I. Tchaikovsky, P.P. Melnikov, O.E. Putyatina, N.G. Gubonin, N.I. Varshavsky, N.M. Zhuravlev, A.V. Kazakov, D.M. Polezhaev, S.S. Polyakov, M.G. Gorbov, I.D. Busurin, simple Russian pilgrims and pilgrims from Russia also contributed their money [3].
 
Pavel Petrovich Melnikov (1804-1880).
First Minister of Railways of the Russian Empire (1865-1869).
Chairman of the fund-raising committee for the purchase of land
the future of the Gorniy Monastery in Jerusalem
 
At the same time, the village of Ein Karem became the object of the wide activity of the famous Latin missionary A. Ratisbon, a baptized Catholic Jew, the founder of the famous monastery of the Sisters of Zion on the Road of the Way of the Cross in Jerusalem. Catholics acquire land here, build their chapel, a school for children, and the monastery "Magnificant". Ratisbon was bargaining for the house on the Hana Carlo site. Apparently, unexpectedly requested by him from Ratisbon the amount of 200 thousand francs for the entire site was not approved. Angry Jellyad decided to sell the site to Father Antonin. [4]. The deal was made in complete secrecy. In his diary of July 18, 1870, Archimandrite Antonin already calls this land the future of Muscoby (the so-called Russian sites in the Holy Land). According to the published records from the diary of the archimandrite it becomes clear that the auctions for the site lasted for several months. Father Antonin complained about the lack of money - ... And how many will have to make a difference! Whence to take money ?, and to the intransigence of the seller - ... the old man, by all appearances, is not very pliable in the affairs of money, ... I saw the kinds of little men ... with his humor peculiar to him calling the seller Old rogue! ... Koschei immortal. And on November 4, news comes of Hannah Carl's desire to see me. The arrival of the honorable person and the conduct of delicate conversations, which resulted in the fact that he agreed to sell both houses to the whole earth for 4,000 Napoleons and provided ... that he be procured with the Russian order and St. Anne. They struck the hands and said good-bye. To admit, it was very fun. But two weeks later on November 18 there is an entry in the diary-Nad Bugle still lies the darkness of the unknown. Again, the insatiable gentleman is darkening, and Father Antonin, in his December 10 records, is upset that he will have to add 200 or 300 Napoleons to the above amount. . . Now things can not be corrected. December 18 go with the owner to inspect the estate. It seemed to me now not as huge as imagined. Yes, in addition to this disappointment when looking at a smaller site, a new one is added-the Old Knave cut off a significant piece of the place sold there and fenced it off with a new wall. It's a bad thing, but it can also be useful to us. Archimandrite now hopes to reduce the price for a small house, but from a large and completely refuse. Parted, however, friends, although the old man was embarrassed by the discovery of his trick [5]. And again, letters, talks and experiences ...
 
And yet in February 1871 a bill of sale was made for this plot with two houses and a garden. Archimandrite Nikodim (Rotov) in his book "History of the Russian spiritual mission in Jerusalem" writes that the site was purchased for 55 thousand francs. Archimandrite Cyprian is given an amount of 70 thousand francs. According to the purchase of the fortress - Turkish coins, 125 thousand piastres. According to the diaries of Archimandrite Antoninus 4000 plus 200-300 Napoleons (the golden Napoleon was equal to 20 silver francs).  
 
Why Jellyad sells the site to Archimandrite Antonin remains unknown, because at the same time Catholics near the monastery and the shelter offered Jalliad a much larger amount. Archimandrite Cyprian (Kern) in his book "Father Antonin Kapustin - Archimandrite and Head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem" explains the actions of Gelliades as a result of his heated conflict with the famous Latin missionary A. Ratisbon. Also strange are the circumstances of the death of Jellyada after the sale of the site to him. Archimandrite Nicodim writes that Jellyad was killed the day after the documents were issued [6]. The historian NN Lisova, a Palestinian scholar, quotes references from the book of the Secretary of the IOPS VN Khitrovo that Hannah-Carlo Jelyad was killed a few days after the deal. However, everyone was sure that the retired dragoman was poisoned by Catholics: the narrow wedge of the Franciscan monastery was surrounded on all sides by the possessions of the Russian archimandrite [7]. The popular rumor attributed this murder to Catholic fanaticism. [8]  

According to the deed (translation from the Arabic language) of Fortress No. 62 to place in Ain Karem (Horne Gradu Judah) of November 11, 1889, it followed:
 
"I certify the faithfulness of the deposed. (signature) Es-Said-Muhammad Tagir-al-Khaledi, Deputy of the Judge of Jerusalem.
Before the court and in the presence of the Viceroy, the Judge, whose seal and signature appear above, was Mr. Yakov, the dragoman of the Archimandrite of the Spiritual Head of the Russian Government in Jerusalem, about whom it will be said below, (Yakov), the son of George, the son of Ivan al-Khalebi, the Greek, Turkish-speaking, and stated, confirming freely and voluntarily (his statement) witness testimony that satisfies all the conditions required by law:
That all the growths from fruit trees of different breeds (olive and others) located in the space of old western fields, on the land of Ain Karem, adjoining the southern ruins of the monastery from the west, surrounded by a fence on all two sides known as the "Oil Fields" and the possessions of Subani bounded from the south and the lands of Abd-ur-Rahim and Muhammad, the sons of Dawood, the inhabitants of the said village; from the east - the land of the children of the former Mufti, which is part of the second field, the third - below the aforementioned monastery and the ruins of the above, counting the square adjacent to the wall of this monastery, in which wall there is a door; from the north - a public road; from the west - the aforementioned field, and this house and the said trees stand on the ground, constituting the waqf in the name of Saint Abu-Medius Faut and bearing the duty of hikras in 20 piasters annually, in favor of this waqf,
- and that all trees of different breeds, olives, etc., located on a new eastern field, on the land of the same village that adjoins the eastern side to the first field, is fenced on all sides, known as the children of Jaber and the children of Selim and the possessions of Barakat , inhabitants of the named village, from the north by a public road leading to the said destroyed monastery in the field, and twice mentioned by the monastery; - on the road this gate of the new field opens, - from the west the land belonging to the monk of the Latin monastery, and the first mentioned field,

and that all the buildings of the eastern small house that is in the same village and in the same eastern field (houses), which contains a large cellar and, on the west side, 4 rooms, on the east 2 large rooms, a cistern, and near cellar, from the south, kitchen, amenities and a stone staircase leading to the attic; in the lower floor, on the east side - a room for cattle and legitimate amenities; are confined to the four sides of the aforementioned eastern field, with this house and the said trees standing on the land constituting the waqf in honor of St. Abu-Mediy, with the guilt of hikras, at 25 piastres per year, in favor of this waqf, that the above-named immovable property was purchased by him the final act of purchase, for the price paid by him of 125 tons. Piastrov, from Mrs. Malki, daughter of Joseph Butris Latinian, wife of Ivan Karlo Latinyan, by virtue of a legal act concluded during the stay of Seide Mustafa Efendi, judge Jerusalem, for his signature and seal of 7 Zi-l-Hijj and 1287 (February 17, 1871); and said that the said trees and two houses are the property of His Preacher, Archimandrite Antoninus, the son of Ivan, the son of Leontius, the Head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, and that his name (Jacob) is staged in this act of purchase fictitiously instead of the named Archimandrite, that the Russian Government had not yet had permission to own immovable property in Turkey, and that the price was given out of the sums of the aforementioned Archimandrite, and that he (Yakov) had no right to the said property, and that the fence was erected at the expense of the same Archimandrite ita and wholly belongs to him, and acknowledged the above and confirmed it with legal testimony, which recognition and testimony were received by Mr. Matvey, the son of George, the son of Asmak, the Greek, and the attorney of Archimandrite, who, upon reading this document, approved it in all parts and took it according to the law. 19 Shaaban 1290 (October 1, 1873).
 
(Signatures of seven witnesses follow)
 
(From Turkish) 125.000 <amount of transaction>
833.31 (legal costs)
Only eight hundred and thirty-three piastres thirty pairs.
 
(From Arabic): the sum of eight hundred thirty-three piastres thirty pairs we received
November 11, 1289 (1872)
 
(PS Place for stamp). [9] »
 
So, the site becomes Russian, and Father Antonin calls this place "The High City of Judas" - abbreviated "Gorniy or Gornee". Initially, services in the summer were made in a specially arranged tent, and in winter during the rainy season in the two-story house of the Mission. Here, with the blessing of the Patriarch of Jerusalem and the request of Archimandrite Antonin, an Arab priest came to serve. In this beautiful corner on a picturesque slope, Archimandrite Antonin himself chooses a place for a small temple, whose architectural plan was inscribed by himself, and the Arab contractor Jiries built a temple for three building seasons (1880-1881) for three hundred napoleons. For a bell tower standing separately from the church, the contractor took a separate fee of 30 napoleons. [10] The construction of the church was preceded by many obstacles. Here is how they are interpreted by the St. Petersburg historian Olga L. Cerpitskaya in her article "Archimandrite Antonin (Kapustin) and the Russian shrines in the Holy Land":  
"Initially, he agreed with the rector of the Catholic monastery of John the Baptist for freedom of action on the land acquired, but after the appointment of a new custodian of the Holy Land in Jerusalem, the" neighbor "of Father Antoninus was removed for the protection of the schismatic tendencies of the Ain Karimians, and in April 1881 Reuf - Pasha (at the insistence of the Catholics [11]) demanded that the work be stopped before the receipt of the Sultan firman [12], which was issued already in the second half of 1881 at the request of the Russian government. [13] She did not welcome the construction of the temple and Jerusalem I Patriarchate, because the patriarch Hierophy (according to his letter to Metropolitan Isidor, the leading member of the Synod), considered himself offended by the fact that Archimandrite Antonin had not notified him of the construction of churches and retreated with such actions from church canons, but at the same time the Patriarch hinted that the brotherly the letter from the Holy Synod can correct the matter. The letter was sent to Jerusalem, and in it Metropolitan Isidore asked His Beatitude not only to forgive Archimandrite Antoninus, without the evil intention of having committed such a misconduct, but also blessings be consecrated the church on the Mount of Olives, in mining and in Gethsemane (St. Mary Magdalene). Patriarch Hierotheos remained very pleased with such attention and no longer impeded the construction. Since the donations to the temple were constantly sent from Russia, the work came to an end in early 1882, but the patriarch Hierophy died and new difficulties arose: the consul tried to delay the consecration in every possible way, but Father Antonin, using the locum tenens of the Patriarchal Throne, received an oral blessing on transfer of antimension from the temporary church to a new one, and on February 14, 1883, without waiting for written permission, he himself performed the Divine Liturgy and the order of consecration. [14] This action did not make any impression on the church authorities, and Father Antonin received a remark that it was worth doing so long ago to end the scandal "[15].
 
The result of Catholic and Protestant propaganda was the departure of the local Arab population from Orthodoxy to Catholicism and Protestantism. The construction of the Russian church in Gorniy, according to the archimandrite, could improve the situation on the whole and return many to Orthodoxy. October 28, 1885, Father Antonin wrote in the St. Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church a special report on the construction of the church in Horni and its use as a local parish church for the population of the village of Ein Karem. "The Church of Our Lady, 8 versts west of Jerusalem, in the village of Ein Karem - according to legend, in the Evangelical" City of Judas "- is also built on Russian soil, on the purchase site purchased by me in 1871, as well as on the Sultan firma of the same date with the above. On the circumstance that gave rise to its construction, and everything else I was told to the Holy Synod in 1883 (April 5, No. 82). Waiting until the local church authority is built in Ain Karem Orthodox parish church for returning to Orthodoxy residents, now in our church, appointed by the Patriarchate in the village, the Arab priest performs ordinary worship. With all the surrounding church and a place built on it, the worship shelters, it is also in my full possession and is supported by the funds of the Spiritual Mission "[16]. 
 
According to the list of land belonging to the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission, decorated by the late Archimandrite Antonin, the site in the Gorniy Monastery is described as follows:  
 
"4. A plot in a village called Gorniya (the Muslim name of Ain Karem) is an hour's drive from Jerusalem.  
On this site there are:
1) a church in the name of the Kazan Mother of God,
2) two shelters for pilgrims visiting Gorniy,
3) several dozen houses where novices live, known as the sisters of the Gornenskiy Russian Women's Community founded by the the deceased Archimandrite Antonin,
4) a new large temple under construction.
<Area> 222591.37 <sq.m. »[17]»
 
Father Antonin conceived that the whole northern slope of the mountain be inhabited by Russian pilgrims, who want to remain in the Holy Land until the end of their days. Therefore, upon admission, the following principle was observed: each resident for a certain amount paid to the Mission received her land allotment and had to build her house, all household buildings, build a garden around her (plant cypress, almonds), and arrange the land plot [18 ]. The sisters' community under the guidance of nun Pavla grew and grew stronger, the slope blossomed in gardens, paying tribute to hard painstaking labor, love and care.
 
Justifying his plans for the use of the Gorniy area, Archimandrite Antonin wrote to the Russian Consul in Jerusalem, D.N. Bukharov, regarding No. 57 of November 18, 1886:
 
"In pursuance of the order of the Russian-Imperial Embassy under the Ottoman Port, I presented you with respect to yours, from the 10th of November this month for No. 465, I have the honor to inform your High Priest of the following information about the properties I acquired in Palestine, purchased by me, in time my stay here, in the title of Chief of the Jerusalem Ecclesiastical Mission, and mainly of the importance of the Enthusiastic Shelters. They are:
... 2) ... an hour and a half from Jerusalem to the west in the village of Ain Karem - Evangelical City of Judah, - the birthplace of St. John the Baptist and the three-month stay of the Mother of God of Righteous Elizabeth - about 200 feddans in the size, bought in 1871 from the Jerusalem resident Khan -Karlo and a part of the local inhabitants of the Fellahs, the reason for this was the complaint repeatedly claimed by the Franciscan monastery against Russian pilgrims looking for a lodging in the local Latin monastery, contrary to its statutes. Here, too, there are two houses turned into worship shelters, with the church under them and the seven cells, in which the miserable elderly women from Russian worshipers live, transferred from Jerusalem and wishing to end their days in the Holy Land, in the care of which there is a church serving temporarily and parish for the local Orthodox population. [19] "

With great difficulty, he managed to obtain permission from the patriarch for the consecration of the church in Gorniy - this was the period of such strained relations with the patriarchs Hierotheus and Nicodim; Finally, Metropolitan Petra of Arabia, the elderly Nicephorus consecrated a small, but such a prayer temple of the Kazan Mother of God (celebrated on October 22). From the report on the revision of the monetary and material economy and on the review of real estate, accounting and reporting of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem on November 4, 1914, we learn that:
"The Church in the name of the Mother of God, the Kazan Icon of Her, in the Gorny community - a small one-story building, with one head and a pointed small bell tower. The iconostasis is two-tiered with icons of good writing. The church was built by the late Archimandrite Antonin. Utensils and sacristy of the church are not rich and plentiful. The church is kept in order, but is now recognized as having little capacity in the period of the pilgrimage movement "[20].
 
Первоночальный вид Обители, с только что построенной Церковью
 The original view of the Abode,
with the church just built
Lithography of 1883

 
  Вид на храм во имя Казанской иконы Божией Матери, освященный 14 февраля 1883 года
 View of the church in the name of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God, consecrated February 14, 1883
Photo of the monk Timon
© Photo archive of the Jerusalem branch of the IOPS
 
  Вид на Горненский женский монастырь в пригороде Иерусалима Эйн-Карем
View of the Gorniy Monastery in the suburbs of Jerusalem Ein Karem
Photo of the monk Timon. The end of XIX century.
© Photo archive of the Jerusalem branch of the IOPS
 
Молящиеся монахини в храме во имя Казанской иконы Божией Матери
Praying nuns in the church in the name of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God
Photo of the monk Timon. The end of XIX century.
© Photo archive of the Jerusalem branch of the IOPS
 
Храм во имя Казанской иконы Божией Матери
Church in the name of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God
Gornensky Monastery. Modern look
 
Honoring Ein Karem as the "City of Judas", Father Antonin interceded in St. Synod of the establishment of a special holiday of "Kissing" (Magnificant) in memory of the visit of the Mother of God after the blessing of her cousin Elizabeth. By the Decree of the Synod of August 5, 1883, it was decided to celebrate in Gorniy monastery a special day of commemoration of the advent of "The Gornaya" of the Virgin Mary and her stay here for three months [21]. The Synod established to celebrate it on March 30 (April 12), if the Annunciation does not fall on the Holy Days (otherwise the holiday is postponed on Thursday of the Holy Week or on the day of the memory of the icon of the Mother of God "The Life-giving Spring"). From the Trinity Cathedral, the Mission carries the icon of the Annunciation to the source of the Mother of God in the village of Ein Karem, which the sisters of the monastery are already waiting there with bunches of flowers in their hands. After the prayer service, the procession to the monastery begins under the sound of bells. A cozy little church decorated for the holiday. At the entrance to it lies a floral carpet in the form of a circle, collected by the hands of sisters. For the icon a special elevated place with a cover in the form of a blue mantle is prepared, immediately the hegumen's staff is attached. The icon of the Annunciation, in memory of the three-month stay of the Mother of God visiting the righteous Zechariah and Elizabeth, remains in Gorniy for three months until June 24 - the day of the Nativity of John the Baptist. The Feast of the Nativity of the Holy Righteous John the Baptist is the patronal feast of the Gornensky Monastery. At Christmas, St. John the icon of Annunciation is escorted from Gornyís to the Holy Trinity Cathedral of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem.
 
Цветочный ковер у входа в храм в праздник "Целования" Горненский монастырь в Иерусалиме
Flower carpet at the entrance to the Kazan church on the holiday "Kissing". (Magnificant)
Gornensky Monastery in Jerusalem. Photo April 11, 2013
  © Photo archive of the Jerusalem branch of the IOPS
 
Цветочный ковер у входа в храм в праздник "Целования"
Flower carpet at the entrance to the church on the holiday "Kissing"
Gorniy Monastery in Jerusalem
 
Насельницы Обители готовятся к "Встрече" иконы "Благовещения"
The Assemblers of the Abode prepare themselves for the "Meeting" of the icon "Annunciation"
 
Встреча чудотворной иконы "Благовещения" в Горненском монастыре
Meeting of the miraculous icon "Annunciation"
in the Gorniy Monastery
 
Father Antonin also wrote the service of this holiday of Kissing, interwoven in meaning with the service of the Annunciation. Celebration Celebration is celebrated from year to year, attracting a considerable number of people, both from among Russian pilgrims, and especially from Abyssinians [22]. It is a well-known fact that the archimandrite himself wrote a special troparion, kontakion and stichera for the holiday of "Kissing" [23]. Troparion "The Coming of the Mother of God in the Gorny Jude Sity" is sung by the sisters of the monastery until now and became an inalienable liturgical tradition in the performance of services. Here is the text of this touching chant composed by the founder of the monastery, Archimandrite Antonin (Kapustin):
 
The virgin is a virgin and Mother is venerable,
Receive from the Archangel Annunciation,
And kissing your dear relative Elizabeth,
The matter of the Lord from this moment was named,
And she magnified the greatness of the Lord God.
Blessed are you in wives and blessed is the fruit of your womb

 
So there was a church in the name of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God and the tradition of the holiday "Kissing".
 
Чудотворная икона Благовещения, приносимая из Троицкого собора Миссии на 3 месяца в Горний
The miraculous icon of the Annunciation,
brought from the Trinity Cathedral of the Mission for 3 months in Gorniy
 
Father Antonin had his own house in Gorniy, which he bequeathed to his beloved pantomime Sophia Konstantinovna Apostolidi - an orphan, who was benefited by Father Antonin. The house where Sophia Apostolides lived was called "the house of Sophia-Greek women" [25] Father Antonin leaves the instructions for the transfer of his house in his spiritual testament to the Head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission on March 19, 1894:
 
"7) My house in Gorniy, with a garden and all accessories, as it is fenced, bequeaths to the full ownership of my dear pantomime Sophia Konstantinovna, with the indispensable condition that after the death of her house this continued to be the property of that person of the female she will choose, and upon the death of this last person, the house becomes the property of the Russian Church in Gorniy. "[26]
In 1984, the entire territory of the Russian site in Gorniy was estimated by the Turkish authorities at 103,133 francs. From the report of the Governor General of the Consulate in Jerusalem, A. Yakovlev, to the ambassador to Constantinople, A.I. Nelidov, dated September 26, 1894, about the evaluation of the Russian site in Horni, it followed:
 
"This place, which includes about 500,000 square meters. Arshin, was made up of the plots which Antonin acquired from 1870 to 1889. To purchase them and the two houses that were on them, they spent about 70,000 francs.
The Turkish government estimated in 1310 (1894):
  a) soil and trees at 101.375 <piastres>, i.e. 22.808 fr.
b) all the buildings (except the church and the bell tower) in 375,000 piastres, i.е. 80.325 fr.
  Total 103,133 francs "[27].
 
According to the list of the Russian women's community, the number of inhabitants for 1894 was 81 people and the community owned the following buildings [28]:
 
"1. Church in the name of the Mother of God; utensils is sufficient
2. The house for the church vestry; the house has two rooms and a storage room.
3. The house for the refectory; the house has three rooms and a corridor.
4. Home for the shelter of fans; in the lower floor there are three rooms and a kitchen, and the upper one has three rooms and a corridor.
5. The second house for the shelter of admirers; in the house there are five rooms, a kitchen and a corridor and on the terrace there is another room. In the house lives the caretaker of the shelter the nun Appolinary and her assistant Manef Yaytsev "[29].
In addition, in Gorniy at that time there were 36 houses in which the residents of the women's monastic community lived [30]. Since the purchase of the land until the death of his father, Antonin built 43 houses with water cisterns and service outbuildings. In the uppermost part of the monastery ownership a watchtower was built [31].  Since 1898, according to the rules regulated by St. The Synod of the women's community in Gorniy acquires the status of a monastic [32]. For the Gorniy community in the summer of 1989, St. Synod, definition for No. 2699, the following guideline rules were approved. Below are the text of these rules [33]:
 
"1) The Gorniy women's community consists in obedience and obedience to the head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, who is her immediate supervisor and patron.
2) The sisters of the Gorniy community are Russian applicants who own the house or part of the house in the fence of the community on the basis of a legally compiled statement (in the form attached at the end of these rules).
3) All the available sisters in the pre-determined meeting with the blessing of the head of the Spiritual Mission are elected by 5 candidates, of whom the head of the Spiritual Mission appoints one - the elder sister, the other - her assistant and the third - the head of the sacristy, which the Holy Synod informs.
4) The elder sister controls the internal order, the economic part and the general canteen of the community. She alone for the affairs of the community is demolished directly with the head of the Spiritual Mission.
5) The assistant takes the place of the elder sister in the event of her absence, illness or death and performs all those assignments that will be assigned to her by her elder sister.
6) The head of the sacristy has supervision over the vestry of the community, which she accepts and surrenders only in accordance with the inventory, and also cares about the splendor of the church.
7) If you want to spend one night in a community or one of the sisters, you ask for permission from the elder sister, without which she can not stay overnight in the community.
8) Those wishing to spend more than one night in the community or with one of the sisters must have the written permission of the head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission, with the exact time stamp of the time spent in the community, and also whether she uses the common dining room. Permission must necessarily be presented to the elder sister.
9) Generally, males are not allowed to stay in the community at night.
10) Those wishing to build a new house in the fence of the community must first obtain written permission from the head of the Spiritual Mission with the exact designation of the place and conditions of construction. This preliminary authorization must be submitted to the Consulate General, who makes a statement on it (in the form attached at the end of these rules).
11) Those wishing to rebuild the house, tear out the stones, cut down the trees must receive for permission in writing the head of the Spiritual Mission with an exact designation of the conditions of the permit and the place. This permission must be presented before the beginning of the work to the elder sister.
12) In order to avoid misunderstandings, those wishing to build a contract or a contract for a contractor can apply to the Consulate General ...
13) All vegetables and fruits that are in the fence of the community, except for those growing at the homes and planted by the owners themselves, are the common property of the community, are cultivated and collected at the behest of the elder sister.
14) A sister who does not have the opportunity to leave her room for sickness, has the right to receive from the common dining room one portion of dinner and one portion of dinner.
15) In order to avoid misunderstandings, the sister should make her orders for property in the event of death through the general consulate.
16) The sale of wine and strong drinks in the community is strictly prohibited, and the person guilty of such sale is immediately excluded from the community.
17) In the event of the death of the sister, the elder sister or her incoming place immediately notifies the head of the Spiritual Mission, who himself informs the Consulate General.
18) Upon removal of the deceased, the elder sister or the place in front of her in the presence of the retailer and two sisters of the community locks the door of the deceased's apartment, and the rest attach their seals-the key to the door takes to itself and takes all the measures that it deems necessary to protect the property of the deceased until the legal instructions.
19) For violation of the above-mentioned approved rules, the perpetrators are subject to recovery imposed by the head of the Spiritual Mission, who, if necessary, applies for the assistance of the Consulate General.
20) After a year from the introduction of these rules, the head of the Spiritual Mission is obliged to present to the Chief Procurator of the Holy Synod his views on the modification of these additions.
 
The form of the statement referred to in paras. 2 and 11:
 
"Statement. I, the undersigned (name, patronymic, surname and title of the applicant, the owner of the house), I hereby declare that I have built funds for Me in the village of Ain Karem (Hornee), near Jerusalem, on the land belonging to the vacuum of Archimandrite Antonin, Spiritual Mission in Jerusalem (1.2 or part) house (s). I have accepted the following conditions:
1) I can live in this house until my death and, dying, I have the right through the general consulate in Jerusalem to sell or give it to another female person, exclusively Russian filed, however, that after the death of this latter the house is immediately and free of charge becomes the property of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem;
2) If I do not indicate to this local Consulate General this person during my life, this house, immediately after my death, immediately and free of charge becomes the full ownership of the local Spiritual Mission, and I deprive my heirs of the right to make any claim to him ;
3) I have no right to mortgage this property without the permission of the head of the Spiritual Mission and without the help of the local Consulate General here. Due to all of the above, I, with the consent of the head of the Spiritual Mission, declare that after the death and on the conditions listed above, the said house must be transferred for free to the lifelong use of the Russian filed (name, patronymic, surname and title of person for lifetime use of which is given to the house ), which must appear personally during (such-and-such a period) to the general consulate for drawing up the final act. Jerusalem, day, month, year. Signatures: the proprietress of the house and two witnesses. Gave my consent to all of the above. Jerusalem, the number, month and year, the head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem (signature) (Stamp place).
 
I am the undersigned (the title, name, patronymic and surname of the person whose house is given for life), I accept the house on the foregoing conditions and I repeat that after my death the head of the local Spiritual Mission has the right, if he so desires, possession of this house, and that my heirs are deprived of the right to make any claims at home. Jerusalem, day, month and year. Signature of the person for whom the house is given for life. Signature
 
  Вид на Горненский женский монастырь в пригороде Иерусалима Эйн-Карем
Photo of the monk Timon. The end of XIX century.
© Photo archive of the Jerusalem branch of the IOPS
 
 
Вид монастыря в начале 20-го века. Вдали "Башня Антонина" - сторожевая башня монастыря
View of the monastery in the early 20th century
In the distance "The Tower of Antonin" - the watchtower of the monastery
 
The first Gornenskiy abbess was the nun Valentine. With her, the monastery reached its heyday, in 1903, icon-painting and gold embroidery workshops were created. At the end of the XIX century, the number of inhabitants of the monastery reaches 200 sisters. From 1914 to 1918, at the request of the Turkish authorities, along with other members of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission, the sisters were forced to leave for Alexandria to Egypt. Those of the sisters who stayed in the monastery suffered difficulties and hardships, engaging in heavy work on crushing stone at 15 km. from the monastery. Returning in 1918 in Gorniy, the sisters found that the monastery was almost destroyed, the churches and lodges of the sisters required repairs. With the Abbess Tavitha, the temple, sacristy and some sisters' houses were restored. Then there were considerable difficulties with the jurisdiction when Abbess Tabitha was removed, the monastery was subordinate to the Foreign Synod, and the sisters of the Gornenskaya monastery with the newly elected Father Superior Antonina prayed with the blessing of the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Timothy, in the Greek Orthodox Church in the village of Ein Karem. Since the formation of the State of Israel, the Gornenskiy Monastery as well as the buildings of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission has been returned by the Israeli authorities of the Moscow Patriarchate. In 1955, with the blessing of Patriarch Alexy I (Simansky), a large group of sisters was sent to Gorniy for obedience [35]. The monastic life in Gorniy was not interrupted for one year.
 
Современная фотография Горненского монастыря с высоты птичьего полета
A modern photograph of the Gornensky Monastery from a bird's eye view
 
In 1910, under Archimandrite Leonid (Sentsov), the construction of the cathedral in the name of the Life-Giving Trinity was begun, [36] the construction of which lasted almost 100 years, first because of the First World War, then the revolution and the subsequent Soviet antireligious period. In our time, the construction of the cathedral, which is now dedicated to All Saints on the Russian land, has resumed. It rises majestically on the top of the monastery's slope, crowned with domes with crosses. It is almost completed, only internal finishing works remain. At the end of October 2007, in the framework of the celebrations dedicated to the 160th anniversary of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, a small consecration of this cathedral was made.
 
Вид на Горненский монастырь с недостроенным верху храмом
View of the Gornensky Monastery with an unfinished cathedral on the top of the slope
 
Недостроенный собор на вершине склона
Unfinished cathedral on the top of the monastery slope
 
Святейший Патриарх Алексий II благословляет дальнейшее строительство собора.
Russian Patriarch Alexy II blesses the future
construction of the cathedral.
Photo of 1997
 
Возрожденный собо во имя Всех Святых на земле Российской просиявших.
Revived Cathedral in the name of All Saints on Russian Land
The symbol of Russian spiritual presence in the Holy Land
2006
 
In 2009, the domes of the Church of All Russian Saints were covered with gilding
 
  Храм всех русских святых в Горненском монастыре в Иерусалиме
The Church of All Russian Saints in the Gorny Monastery in Jerusalem
Photos January 14, 2014
© Photo archive of the Jerusalem branch of the IOPS

Храм всех русских святых в Горненском монастыре в Иерусалиме
The Church of All Russian Saints in the Gorny Monastery in Jerusalem
Photos March 23, 2012
© Photo archive of the Jerusalem branch of the IOPS
 
In 1987, in Gorniy appeared another cave chucrch in the name of St. John the Baptist. The church is closely adjacent to the territory of the Catholic monastery of the Visitation and according to the legend it is located on the site of the Sv. rights. Zechariah and Elizabeth [37].
 
Currently, more than 60 sisters are in charge of the Gorniy, led by the abbess - the abbot Georgia (Shchukina). Through the efforts of Mother George, the monastery is being restored: the sisters' houses are being repaired, a water pipeline is being built, hotels for pilgrims are being built, churches, a refectory, and a water pipe have been renovated [38].
 
The abbess of the Gornensky Monastery - Father Superior Georgia (Shchukina)
© Photo archive of the Jerusalem branch of the IOPS
 
This continues the one and a half century history of the Gornensky monastery and the tradition of its patronal feasts, and together with them the history of Russian spiritual presence in the Holy Land. To date, Russian Orthodox pilgrims always want to visit the Gornensky Monastery, in places where the Mother of God herself lived for three months, in places consecrated with prayer and the pleasing works of such devout devotees as Archimandrite Antonin (Kapustin). Many pilgrims live in cozy hotel houses of the monastery. The traditions of the Russian Orthodox pilgrimage to the Holy Land in the 21st century are being revived.


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Notes

 
[1] The Gospel of Luke. (1.39-56)  
[2] N.N. Lisovoi. "Russian spiritual and political presence in the Holy Land and the Middle East in the XIX century - early XX century. 6.4. Monastery in Gornja (1871-1883). P.153. Publishing house "Indrik". Moscow 2006
 
[3] The City of Judah in Gorniy. (Gorniy women's monastery in Jerusalem). Page 12 «The Spiritual Field». Moscow 1997
 
[4] Archimandrite Nicodim (Rotov). "History of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem". P.252
 
[5] "Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials ". Volume II. From the diaries of the arch. Antonina p. 573 Moscow. "International relationships". 2000. The Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Empire of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, IOPS, Institute of Russian History of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
 
[6] Archimandrite Nicodim (Rotov). "History of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem". p. 252
 
[7] [Khitrovo] En Terre Sainte. Souvenirs de Voyage. SPb., 1884.P.50
 
[8] Archimandrite Cyprian (Kern). O. Antonin Kapustin Archimandrite and Head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem. Page 198. CHAPTER VIII. The Jerusalem years (1865-1894). Moscow 2005 Publishing house Krutitskogo podvorya. Society of Church History Lovers.
 
[9] Buying a fortress for a place in Ain Karem (Horn City of Jerusalem). November 11, 1889 WUA RI, f. The Greek table, op. 497, d. 2579, f. 69-72.
 
[10] N.N. Lisovoy. "Russian spiritual and political presence in the Holy Land and the Middle East in the XIX century - early XX century." 6.4. Monastery in Horní (1871-1883). Стр. 154. Publishing house "Indrik". Moscow 2006
 
[11] Quoted from the article by O. L. Cerpitskaya. "Archimandrite Antonin Kapustin and Russian shrines in the Holy Land." TsGIA St. Petersburg. f. 797. 1841-1890. op. 11, 32-34, 39-41, 43, 45, 47-49, 58, 59, 63, 64, 94. Nos. 27, 29, 32, 34, 39, 45, 47-49, 55-59 , 98, 103, 108, 128, 182, 194, 232, 452.
 
[12] Quoted from the article by O. L. Cerpitskaya. "Archimandrite Antonin Kapustin and Russian shrines in the Holy Land." TsGIA St. Petersburg. f. 796. 1877-1883. op. 205. No. 519.
 
[13] Quoted from the article by O. L. Cerpitskaya. "Archimandrite Antonin Kapustin and Russian shrines in the Holy Land." TsGIA St. Petersburg. f. 797. 1841-1890. op. 11, 32-34, 39-41, 43, 45, 47-49, 58, 59, 63, 64, 94. Nos. 27, 29, 32, 34, 39, 45, 47-49, 55-59 , 98, 103, 108, 128, 182, 194, 232, 452.
 
[14] Ibid.
 
[15] Olga Cerpitskaya. "Archimandrite Antonin (Kapustin) and Russian shrines in the Holy Land." Journal of St. Petersburg diocesan lists. 2000 No. 21-22.
 
[16] Report of the chief of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, Archimandrite Antoninus in St. Synod. October 28, 1885). WUA RI, f. RIPPO, op. 873/11, d., L., 16-17 "Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials ". Volume II. p.199. Moscow. "International relationships". 2000. The Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Empire of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, IOPS, Institute of Russian History of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
 
[17] List of land plots owned by the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission, waqf deceased O. archimandrite Antonin on September 10/22, 1889, signed by Archimandrite Leonid (Kavelin). "Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials ". Volume II. p.166. Moscow. "International relationships". 2000. The Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Empire of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, IOPS, Institute of Russian History of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
 
[18] Archimandrite Nicodim (Rotov). "History of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem". Chapter III Archimandrite Antonin and the Russian Spiritual Mission under his administration. P.253
 
[19] The attitude of the chief of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, Archimandrite Antoninus, to the Consul in Jerusalem, DN Bukharov. November 18, 1886 WUA RI, f. The Greek table, op. 497, d. 2579, f. 97-100 vol. "Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials ". Volume II. p.206-207. Moscow. "International relationships". 2000. The Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Empire of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, IOPS, Institute of Russian History of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
 
[20] Report on the revision of the monetary and material economy and on the review of real estate, accounting and reporting of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem on November 4, 1914. "Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials ". Volume II. 160. Moscow. "International relationships". 2000. The Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Empire of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, IOPS, Institute of Russian History of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
 
[21] Archimandrite Nicodim (Rotov). "History of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem". Chapter III Archimandrite Antonin and the Russian Spiritual Mission under his administration. P.253
 
[22] Archimandrite Cyprian (Kern). O. Antonin Kapustin Archimandrite and head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem. (1817-1894) Chapter VIII. The Jerusalem years (1865-1894) P.177.
 
[23] A.Pashkov. "Baturin-Baturin. Priestly clan of the Kapustins. " Стр. 116. Publishing house "Iset". The city of Shadrinsk. 2004
 
[24] Gornensky Monastery of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem. Publishing house "Indrik". Moscow 2007
 
[25] Archimandrite Nicodim (Rotov). "History of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem". Chapter III Archimandrite Antonin and the Russian Spiritual Mission under his administration. P.253
 
[26] Spiritual Testament of the Chief of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, Archimandrite Antonin (Kapustin) March 19, 1894 WUA RI, f. RIPPO, op. 873/11, 5, L.12-14. "Russia in the Holy Land.
 
[27] Report of the Director General of the Consulate General in Jerusalem, A. Yakovlev, to the Ambassador in Constantinople, AI Nelidov. September 26, 1894 IV. In the village of Gornee. WUA RI, f. The Greek table, op. 497 d. 2421, part 1, l. 128-134. "Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials ". Volume II. p. 235. Moscow. "International relationships". 2000. The Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Empire of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, IOPS, Institute of Russian History of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
 
[28] Russian women's community in Gorniy (description of buildings and list of residents). 1894 WUA RI, f. The Greek table, op. 497, д. 2421, ч. 1, л. 124-126 vol. "Russia in the Holy Land. Documents and materials ". Volume II. pp.240-242. Moscow. "International relationships". 2000. The Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Empire of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, IOPS, Institute of Russian History of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
 
[29] Ibid.
 
[30] Ibid.
 
[31] Archimandrite Nicodim (Rotov). "History of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem". Chapter III Archimandrite Antonin and the Russian Spiritual Mission under his administration. P.253
 
[32] Ibid.
 
[33] Archimandrite Nicodim (Rotov). "History of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem". Chapter IV Russian Spiritual Mission from the death of Father Antonin before the war of 1914. P.271
 
[34] Archives of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission. Case No. 5020. Quoted from Archimandrite Nikodim (Rotov). "History of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem". Chapter IV Russian Spiritual Mission from the death of Father Antonin before the war of 1914. P. 307
 
[35] The City of Judah in Gorniy. (Gorniy women's monastery in Jerusalem). P.17-18 "Spiritual Field". Moscow, 1997.
 
[36] History of the Gorniy Monastery in Jerusalem. Edition Gornensky monastery.
 
[37] Ibid.
 
[38] The City of Judah in Gorniy. (Gorniy women's monastery in Jerusalem). Page 21 "The Spiritual Field". Moscow, 1997.
 
Used Books
 
1. Archimandrite Nicodemus Rotov. "History of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem".
 
2. "Russia in the Holy Land." Documents and materials. Volume II.
 
3. Nikolai Nikolayevich Lisovoi. "Russian spiritual and political presence in the Holy Land and the Middle East in the XIX century - early XX century. Publishing house "Indrik". Moscow 2006
 
4. Olga Cerpitskaya. "Archimandrite Antonin Kapustin and Russian shrines in the Holy Land."
 
5. Archimandrite Cyprian (Kern). O. Antonin Kapustin Archimandrite and head of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem. (1817-1894).
 
6. History of the Gorniy Monastery in Jerusalem. Edition Gornensky monastery.
 
7. The City of Judah in Horn. (Gorniy women's monastery in Jerusalem). Page 12 «The Spiritual Field». Moscow, 1997.
 
8. A. Pashkov. "Baturin-Baturin. Priestly clan of the Kapustins. " Стр. 116. Publishing house "Iset". The city of Shadrinsk. 2004
 
9. Gornensky Monastery of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem. Publishing house "Indrik". 2007
 
 


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